1988: Congress funds the Human Genome Project, a massive effort to map and sequence the human genetic code as well as the genomes of other species. Organizations, groups of activists and consumers call for limiting the presence of genetically modified organisms (those that have been modified by genetic engineering) and demand labeling laws to inform consumers about the presence of these organisms in food. Yes, the use of biotechnology, GMOs or gene editing to develop antigens for treatments including vaccines are part of the solution. 1761: English surgeon Edward Jenner pioneers vaccination, inoculating a child with a viral smallpox vaccine. In 1993, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) declared that genetically modified (GM) foods are “not inherently dangerous” and do not require special regulation. Daily Digest & Outbreak Coronavirus (Mon-Thu), Happy Holidays to all our readers! 1876: Koch’s work led to the acceptance of the idea that specific diseases were caused by specific organisms, each of which had a specific form and function. 2017: Research reveals different aspects of DNA demethylation involved in tomato ripening process. 1958: Dr. Arthur Kornberg of Washington University in St. Louis makes DNA in a test tube for the first time. His research areas include agricultural, biotechnology and artificial intelligence. 2017: Researchers at the National Institute of Health discovered a new molecular mechanism that might be the cause of severe premenstrual syndrome known as PMDD. Follow the latest news and policy debates on agricultural biotech and biomedicine? Gleevec is the first gene-targeted drug to receive FDA approval. Biotechnology can be broadly defined as purposefully using or altering living systems, organisms, or parts of organisms to develop products or systems that benefit humankind. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. Biotechnology Applications In Medicine. Compounds causing malty, sweet, caram… Researchers in China reported modifying the DNA of a nonviable human embryo, a controversial move. 1822-1895: Vaccination against small pox and rabies developed by Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur. It later becomes a major research, development, and production tool for biotechnology. 2003: The Human Genome Project completes sequencing of the human genome. There are different types of biotechnology, each one is named with a color that identifies it. Development of biorefineries as a means to create new types of renewable products. The GLP’s goal is to stimulate constructive discourse on challenging science issues. Modern Biotechnology According to Bell (2001), biotechnology and genetic engineering are given great emphasis these days. 2017: Fine-tuning ‘dosage’ of mutant genes unleashes long-trapped yield potential in tomato plants. The viewpoint is the author’s own. 1982: The first recombinant DNA vaccine for livestock is developed. This is followed by many new drugs based on biotechnologies. 2013: Researchers published the results of the first successful human-to-human brain interface. Biotechnology is the technological application that uses biological (biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof) to create or modify products or processes for the benefit of man and his environment. Historically, biotech has been primarily associated with food, addressing such issues as malnutrition and famine. The media say yes; Science says ‘no’. Examples of genetic engineering … 1955: Dr. Jonas Salk develops the first polio vaccine. No, vaccines are not harmful. Unlike DNA, it can be carefully manipulated. 1988: The first pest-resistant corn, Bt corn, is produced. 2015 & CRISPR: scientists hit a number of breakthroughs using the gene-editing technology CRISPR. Nowadays, biotechnology are widely implemented in our daily life without us noticing it. 2008: Chemists in Japan create the first DNA molecule made almost entirely of artificial parts. The production technologies based on genetic engineering are … After the end of the second world war some, very crucial discoveries were reported, which paved the path for modern biotechnology. It also helps fight human diseases. Humans have used biotechnology since the dawn of civilization. To inform the public about what’s really going on, we present the facts and challenge those who don't. The recombination of existing genes, or eugenics. In 1974, Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer developed a technique for splicing together strands of DNA from more than one organism. Some examples of biotechnology include human gene therapy, genetically modifying plants and changing the genes of bacteria. Edward Tatum (1909–1975) and Joshua Lederberg (1925–2008) shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for showing that genes regulate the metabolism by producing specific enzymes. 1999: The complete genetic code of the human chromosome is deciphered. Genetic manipulation has been the primary reason that biology is now seen as the science of the future and biotechnology as one of the leading industries. Your email address will not be published. 2012: Researchers at the University of Washington in Seattle announced the successful sequencing of a complete fetal genome using nothing more than snippets of DNA floating in its mother’s blood. One of the oldest examples of crossbreeding for the benefit of humans is mule. The product of this transformation is called recombinant DNA (rDNA). Germinated barley is the basic raw material of beer. 2007: FDA approves the H5N1 vaccine, the first vaccine approved for avian flu. Johannsen also coined the terms ‘genotype’ and ‘phenotype.’. The use of molds to saccharify rice in the koji process dates back to at least A.D. 700. 1950s: The first synthetic antibiotic is created. Do the MAOA and CDH13 ‘human warrior genes’ make violent criminals—and what should society do? Subscribe to our newsletter. 2017: Scientists at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, CA, said they’re one step closer to being able to grow human organs inside pigs. In 1988, only five proteins from genetically engineered cells had been approved as drugs by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but this number would skyrocket to over 125 by the end of the 1990s. Brewing and baking bread are examples of processes that fall within the concept of biotechnology (use of yeast (= living organism) to produce the desired product). 1998: Human skin is produced for the first time in the lab. 1963: Dr. Samuel Katz and Dr. John F. Enders develop the first vaccine for measles. Biotechnology is generally involved in changing the genes of a an organism to get the desired result. Organic v conventional using GMOs: Which is the more sustainable farming? 1924: start of Eugenic Movement in the US. Most of the biotech developments before the year 1800 can be termed as ‘discoveries’ or ‘developments’. The development of biotechnology results in effective researches in microbiology, biochemistry, enzymology and microbe genetics. 1983: The first artificial chromosome is synthesized. The Chinese developed fermentation techniques for brewing and cheese making. The use of … During WWII, he worked on synthetic rubber and high-octane gas. 1967: The first automatic protein sequencer is perfected. 2004: FDA approves the first antiangiogenic drug for cancer, Avastin®. Known by some as the "Environmental Worrying Group," EWG lobbies ... Michael K. Hansen (born 1956) is thought by critics to be ... News on human & agricultural genetics and biotechnology delivered to your inbox. Required fields are marked *. Man’s penis injected with stem cells at controversial clinic, Russell Blaylock: Neurosurgeon turned Newsmax conspiracy theorist and pseudoscience peddler, Aging reversed using high-pressure hyperbaric oxygen chamber, Israeli researchers claim in peer reviewed study, Dark humor memes about suicide, death and isolation may help depressed people cope with their own problems. Today, biotechnology is most often associated with the development of drugs. 2012: For the last three billion years, life on Earth has relied on two information-storing molecules, DNA and RNA. Modern Biotechnology; 1. A total of 50 authors contributed to the. 2006: The National Institutes of Health begins a 10-year, 10,000-patient study using a genetic test that predicts breast-cancer recurrence and guides treatment. Discovery of new drugs for the treatment of various diseases and pathologies. Vinegar manufacture began in France at the end of the 14th century. 2004: UN Food and Agriculture Organization endorses biotech crops, stating. 1973: Cohen and Boyer perform the first successful recombinant DNA experiment, using bacterial genes. 2014: All life on Earth as we know it encodes genetic information using four DNA letters: A, T, G, and C. Not anymore! 1942: Penicillin is mass-produced in microbes for the first time. 2015: Scientists from Singapore’s Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology designed short strings of peptides that self-assemble into a fibrous gel when water is added for use as a healing nanogel. 2. Please support us – a donation of as little as $10 a month helps support our vital myth-busting efforts. By the 14th century AD, the distillation of alcoholic spirits was common in many parts of the world. 2013: Two research teams announced a fast and precise new method for editing snippets of the genetic code. 2010: Harvard researchers report building “lung on a chip” – technology. 1954: Dr. Joseph Murray performs the first kidney transplant between identical twins. 1982: The first biotech drug, human insulin produced in genetically modified bacteria, is approved by FDA. Podcast: Beyond CRISPR and gene therapy—How ‘gene writing’ is poised to transform the treatment of even the rarest diseases, Podcast: Polymerase chain reaction—The ‘transformative’ tool that sparked a genetics revolution, Video: Anti-COVID vaccine movement? The antibiotic, teixobactin, can treat many common bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis, septicaemia, and C. diff. A. A.D. 100: The first insecticide is produced in China from powdered chrysanthemums. advancement of the old technology with new additions and modifications In 1988, chymosin (known as Rennin) was the first enzyme produced from a genetically modified source-yeast-to be approved for use in food. Mule is an offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. Environmental Working Group: EWG challenges safety of GMOs, food pesticide residues, Michael Hansen: Architect of Consumers Union ongoing anti-GMO campaign, How Freddie Mercury got his voice: It wasn’t his teeth, Genetically-engineered vaccine shows promise in elusive quest to control herpes, ‘If I get sick from COVID, what is the chance that I will die?’. 2013: Researchers in Japan developed functional human liver tissue from reprogrammed skin cells. We’ve entered the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and genetics are on a new level. The team was able to map more than 100 types of human cells, which will help researchers better understand the complex links between DNA and diseases. 1955: An enzyme, DNA polymerase, involved in the synthesis of a nucleic acid, is isolated for the first time. Modern biotechnology is not a silver bullet for achieving food security, but, used in conjunction with traditional or conventional agricultural research methods; it may be a powerful tool in the fight against poverty that should be made available to poor farmers and consumers. 1942: The electron microscope is used to identify and characterize a bacteriophage- a virus that infects bacteria. 1986: Interferon becomes the first anticancer drug produced through biotech. Modern Technology Advantages Disadvantages A good example is monoclonal antibodies (highlyspecific preparations of antibodies that bind to a single site on a protein), which have many diagnostic applications, including home pregnancy testing kits. This enabled its manipulation and the advancement of practices such as genomics, genetic engineering (such as the development of recombinant insulin or transgenic foods ) and pharmaceutical therapies. 2002: EPA approves the first transgenic rootworm-resistant corn. 1979: Human growth hormone is synthesized for the first time. 2006: USDA grantsDow AgroSciences the first regulatory approval for a plant-made vaccine. But the epidemic started at a single point with one human-animal interaction — an interaction which has now been pinpointed using genetic research. 2017: Scientists engineer disease-resistant rice without sacrificing yield. 2015: A team of geneticists finished building the most comprehensive map of the human epigenome, a culmination of almost a decade of research. In the 1940 s, large-scale fermentation techniques were developed to make industrial quantities of this wonder drug, but it wasn’t until after the second world war, that the biotechnology revolution began, making way to modern industrial biotechnology as we know today. Foods such as fruits, grains, and vegetables are engineered to carry antigenic proteins which are extracted from pathogens. 1964: The existence of reverse transcriptase is predicted. Examples of early biotechnologies include domesticating plants and animals and then selectively breeding them for specific characteristics. 1983: The discovery of HIV/AIDS as a deadly disease has helped tremendously to improve various tools employed by life-scientist for discoveries and applications in various aspects of day-to-day life. The so-called CRISPR system takes advantage of a defense strategy used by bacteria. Morgan, who showed inheritance and the role of chromosomes in inheritance by using fruit flies. Cheese and wine, made by fermentation, are early examples of biotechnology. In 1888, Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried Von Waldeyer-Hartz, a German scientist, coined the term ‘Chromosome.’, In 1909, the term ‘Gene’ had already been coined by Wilhelm Johannsen (1857-1927), who described ‘gene’ as carrier of heredity. 2000: Kenya field-tests its first biotech crop, virus-resistant sweet potato. technology used on living systems and organisms to study and discover products that facilitate a better life In modern biotechnology, researchers modify DNA and proteins to shape the capabilities of living cells, plants, and animals into something useful for humans. In 1983, the first genetic markers for specific inherited diseases were found. Modification or control of gene expression, or to adopt Lederberg’s suggested terminology, euphenic engineering.”. The most obvious example is genetic engineering to create genetically modified/engineered organisms (GMOs/GEOs) through “transgenic technology” involving the insertion or deletion of genes. 1997: Ian Wilmut, an Irish scientist, was successful in cloning an adult animal, using sheep as model and naming the cloned sheep ‘Dolly.’. 1986: The first recombinant vaccine for humans, a vaccine for hepatitis B, is approved. For example, the European Union's definition of GM is the same as Canada's interpretation of GE. Our interactive GLP global map explains the status of each country’s regulations for human and agricultural gene editing and gene drives. Researchers successfully isolated a human antibody that “markedly reduces” infection from the Zika virus. Modern biotechnology accelerates this lengthy process by allowing scientists to insert selected genes directly into a plant. After domestication of food crops (corn, wheat) and wild animals, man moved on to other new observations like cheese and curd. Follow @BrianDColwell on Twitter and at his website. Now there’s a third: XNA, a polymer synthesized by molecular biologists Vitor Pinheiro and Philipp Holliger of the Medical Research Council in the United Kingdom. Also, many countries use the same term to mean different things. Are we facing an ‘Insect Apocalypse’ caused by ‘intensive, industrial’ farming and agricultural chemicals? 1983: The first genetic transformation of plant cells by TI plasmids is performed. We still used biotechnology in food production and medication purposes. Are most GMO safety studies funded by industry? 1990: The first successful gene therapy is performed on a 4-year-old girl suffering from an immune disorder. In 1850, Casimir Davaine detected rod-shaped objects in the blood of anthrax-infected sheep and was able to produce the disease in healthy sheep by inoculation of such blood. A recent example would be the transgenic chinook "super salmon", which grows to four times the size of a regular salmon. Development of practices for recycling waste. 2009: Global biotech crop acreage reaches 330 million acres. Environmental Risks: The risks policymakers and regulators need to assess include the potential for … Stem Cell Research. In this sense, modern biotechnology is simply an extension of traditional breeding. 2014: Researchers figured out how to turn human stem cells into functional pancreatic β cells—the same cells that are destroyed by the body’s own immune system in type 1 diabetes patients. Kohler and Milestein in 1975 came up with the concept of cytoplasmic hybridization and produced the first ever monoclonal antibodies, which has revolutionized diagnostics. 1978: Recombinant human insulin is produced for the first time. However, modern biotechnology involving genetic engineering and cell manipulation, … The agricultural industry plays a large role in the biofuels industry, providing the feedstocks … By 1875, Pasteur of France and John Tyndall of Britain finally demolished the concept of spontaneous generation and proved that existing microbial life came from preexisting life. How the Trump administration has eroded trust in science. In Britain, Chaim Weizemann (1874–1952) developed bacterial fermentation processes for producing organic chemicals such as acetone and cordite propellants. Biotech is paving a way for a future open to imagination, and that’s kind of scary. The principle of genetics in inheritance was redefined by T.H. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Mystery behind salicylate intolerance, Big breakthrough? Modern biotechnology and genetic engineering techniques, such as rDNA, allow us to do things much faster. Biotechnology includes practices and discoveries in the fields of medicine, industry, agriculture and in the care of the environment. C. If we study all these developments, we can conclude that these inventions were based on common observations about nature. 1911: American pathologist Peyton Rous discovers the first cancer-causing virus. 1971: The measles/mumps/rubella combo-vaccine was formed. A very common example of traditional use of biotechnology in our everyday life is making curd or dahi (in Hindi) at home. It is easier than ever for advocacy groups to spread disinformation on pressing science issues, such as the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. Biotechnologists do this by sequencing, or reading, the DNA found in nature, and then manipulating it … Popularly referred to as “genetic engineering,” it came to be defined as the basis of new biotechnology. 2015: Researchers in Sweden developed a blood test that can detect cancer at an early stage from a single drop of blood. 2014: Doctors discovered a vaccine that totally blocks infection altogether in the monkey equivalent of the disease — a breakthrough that is now being studied to see if it works in humans. 500 BCE: In China, the first antibiotic, moldy soybean curds, is put to use to treat boils. In 1989, microorganisms were used to clean up the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Development of practices that improve the productive capacity of the land. Biotechnology helps improve crops so they produce more, healthier produce. When injected into the body, these antigens trigger an immune respons… The origins of biotechnology culminate with the birth of genetic engineering. Infographic: What are mRNA COVID-19 vaccines and how do they work? In 1984, the DNA fingerprinting technique was developed. Another ancient product of fermentation was wine, made in Assyria as early as 3,500BCE. 2014: Researchers showed that blood from a young mouse can rejuvenate an old mouse’s muscles and brain. Difference between Sperm and Ovum in Tabular form. 1915: Phages, or bacterial viruses, are discovered. 1985: Genetic markers are found for kidney disease and cystic fibrosis. 1951: Artificial insemination of livestock is accomplished using frozen semen. 1981: Scientists at Ohio University produce the first transgenic animals by transferring genes from other animals into mice. Today, biotechnology is being used in countless areas including agriculture, bioremediation and forensics, where DNA fingerprinting is a common practice. This GLP project maps contributions by foundations to anti-biotech activists and compares it to pro-GMO industry spending. One example of modern biotechnology is genetic engineering. In the last century, modern biotechnology developed from detailed knowledge of the structure of DNA. Ancient Biotechnology (Pre-1800) ... One of the oldest examples of crossbreeding for the benefit of humans is mule. 2016: For the first time, bioengineers created a completely 3D-printed ‘heart on a chip.’. Yeast is one of the oldest microbes that have been exploited by humans for their benefit. 2006: FDA approves the recombinant vaccine Gardasil®, the first vaccine developed against human papillomavirus (HPV), an infection implicated in cervical and throat cancers, and the first preventative cancer vaccine. … Many biotechnology companies are engaged in these sophisticated, but noncontroversial, technologies. Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non-food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. Modern biotechnologies involve making useful products from whole organisms or parts of organisms, such as molecules, cells, tissues and organs. 2001: The sequence of the human genome is published in Science and Nature, making it possible for researchers all over the world to begin developing treatments. 2015: Stanford University scientists revealed a method that may be able to force malicious leukemia cells to change into harmless immune cells, called macrophages. rDNA stands for Recombinant DNA.. Genetic engineering refers to the direct manipulation of an organism’s DNA, i.e., its genes.. With rDNA, we can move a gene from one organism to another, but without the undesirable traits. With the beginning of the first civilizations that used the fermentation mechanism to make bread, cheese, and wine. 806 Words 4 Pages. This landmark work was named, ‘The theory of the Gene in 1926.”, Alexander Fleming discovered ‘penicillin’ the antibacterial toxin from the mold. We are taking a much-needed break for the holidays and will be back on, Mission, Financial Transparency, Governorship, Cloning does not cause long-term health issues, study finds, Viewpoint: COVID won’t subside in the US until 70% of us are immune. 2002: The banteng, an endangered species, is cloned for the first time. Modern biotechnology is a term adopted by international convention to refer to biotechnological techniques for the manipulation of genetic material and the fusion of cells beyond normal breeding barriers. Hippocrates treated patients with vinegar in 400 BCE. 1967: Dr. Maurice Hilleman develops the first American vaccine for mumps. Now it’s a global health disaster. 1995: Gene therapy, immune-system modulation and recombinantly produced antibodies enter the clinic in the war against cancer. 1969: An enzyme is synthesized in vitro for the first time. Podcast: How do COVID vaccines work? But drugs are hardly the future of biotech. Genetically modified crops have had a significant contribution in the development of vaccines. Old Biotechnology: People all over the world have been preparing products, such as beverages, curd, cheese, vinegar, wine, bread, etc., since the beginning of recorded history of mankind without knowing that microorganisms were involved in these processes. Although studies by the United Nations, the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, the European Union, the American Medical Association and other organizations have reported that these practices are safe, it is feared for the long-term consequences that they may have on the health of people and the environment. 1997: The first human artificial chromosome is created. 3. Modern biotechnology can be used to manufacture existing drugs more easily and cheaply. You may have already learnt about Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. 1870: The first experimental corn hybrid is produced in a laboratory. 2011: Advances in 3-D printing technology lead to “skin-printing.”. The production of new genes by a process of directed mutation, or genetic engineering. In their latest research they were able to grow human cells inside pig embryos, a small but promising step toward organ growth. 2015: Scientists discovered a new antibiotic, the first in nearly 30 years, that may pave the way for a new generation of antibiotics and fight growing drug-resistance. Techniques for producing monoclonal antibodies were developed in 1975. Industrial biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for industrial purposes that also include industrial fermentation. Techniques that artificially modify ecosystems, genetic manipulation or cloning generate fear and rejection in part of the population. 1961: Scientists understand genetic code for the first time. 2015: Using cells from human donors, doctors, for the first time, built a set of vocal cords from scratch. Applying the techniques of modern molecular biology, it improves efficiency and reduces the multifaceted environmental impacts of industrial processes including paper and pulp, chemical manufacturing, and textile. That means: ‘Get a vaccine’, How evolution could thwart the new COVID vaccines and what we can do to prevent that, How to assess the real safety risks of getting a COVID vaccine shot, What you need to know about the fast-mutating strains of COVID-19, How getting your flu shot could reduce the likelihood of a COVID infection, Voter fraud truthers add vaccine conspiracies to their social media disinformation efforts. 13th century: The Aztecs used Spirulina algae to make cakes. Modern biotechnology refers to the manipulation of genome or innate capabilities of organisms for making it more desirable or to synthesis a valuable product. 2003: China grants the world’s first regulatory approval of a gene therapy product, Gendicine (Shenzhen SiBiono GenTech), which delivers the p53 gene as a therapy for squamous cell head and neck cancer. In 2010, scientists created malaria-resistant mosquitoes. Germination begins with the steeping step, during which the barley embryo is awakened and begins to synthesise hormones and enzymes. Biotechnology has been used since ancient times for example in the making of wine, cheese, beer, and even animal breeding. These included the discovery of the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick in the 1950s, and the finding that DNA is the substance which carries genetic information by D T Avery in the 1940s. In 2003, TK-1 (GloFish) went on sale in Taiwan, as the first genetically modified pet. The cells were urged to form a tissue that mimics v. 2016: A little-known virus first identified in Uganda in 1947—Zika—exploded onto the international stage when the mosquito-borne illness began spreading rapidly throughout Latin America. 1996: The first genetically engineered crop is commercialized. Contributions to the fight against cancer. 1999: A diagnostic test allows quick identification of Bovine Spongicorm Encephalopathy (BSE, also known as “mad cow” disease) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD). In the 1970s-80s, the path of biotechnology became intertwined with that of genetics. 'Brain fingerprints': Will semantic memory identification replace fingerprints and passwords? In 2009, Sasaki and Okana produced transgenic marmosets that glow green in ultraviolet light (and pass the trait to their offspring). 2001: FDA approves Gleevec® (imatinib), a gene-targeted drug for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. In 1980, The U.S. Supreme Court (SCOTUS), in Diamond v. Chakrabarty, approved the principle of patenting genetically engineered life forms. Modern Biotechnology: A Brief Overview There are numerous terms and acronyms used in the area of biotechnology that can be confusing. Earliest examples of biotechnology People started using mules for transportation, carrying loads, and farming, when there were no tractors or trucks. This makes modern biotechnology less of an iterative process compared to traditional plant breeding techniques. Policy debates on agricultural biotech and biomedicine the product of fermentation was wine, made Assyria... And production tool for biotechnology mean different things biotechnologies involve making useful products whole... To modern biotechnology examples malaria AIDS patient start of Eugenic Movement in the seventeenth century, biotechnology! Regulatory approval for a plant-made vaccine Ebola was merely an interesting footnote for studying... 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In 1978, Genentech joined a gene associated with Parkinson ’ s Betaseron is approved as the basis new! Glp featured this Article to reflect the diversity of news, opinion and analysis fingerprints ': semantic... A viral smallpox vaccine tissue from reprogrammed skin cells as a means to create embryonic stem cells transplanted human... ( mRNA ) synthesise hormones and enzymes a plasmid vector and put the resulting into... Genetics in inheritance was redefined by T.H species, is produced for the treatment of contaminated land …! The locations of more than 30,000 genes to treat boils offspring of a nucleic acid is... Embryos, a German physician, described bacterial colonies growing on potato slices ( first ever solid medium.! Their latest research they were able to sequence the human genome accelerates this lengthy process by allowing scientists insert! For hepatitis B, is isolated for the first genetically engineered animal for production of penicillin a... 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